Monday, August 4, 2008


Mohenjo-Daro, archaeological an advanced civilization located in the Indus Valley, or Harappan, civilization (2500?-1700 bc), south of Larkana, Pakistan. Excavated in the 1920s by the British archaeologist Sir John Marshall (1876-1958), Mohenjo-Daro covers more than 80 hectares (200 acres) and consists of two mounds separated by an unoccupied area. The irrigation produced crop surpluses and required an advanced social and political system.. A major city and commercial center during the Bronze Age, it is the largest Indus Valley settlement.

The small western mound, or “citadel,” has several public buildings, which may have been surrounded by a wall. Early excavators took these buildings for a granary, assembly hall, college, and public bath, but later studies have cast doubt on that conclusion. The larger eastern mound consists of large blocks of brick buildings, separated by streets and housing the inhabitants' residences and workshops. The two major cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, had straight streets lined with large, two-story homes equipped with plumbing. Both mounds yielded an abundance of Harappan artifacts. The Indus peoples used wheeled carts, designed creative jewelry and toys, and had written languages.

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